Does Sugar Contribute to Gut Inflammation?

Curr Dev Nutr. 2019 Jun; 3(Suppl 1): nzz040.P20-041-19.Published online 2019 Jun 13. doi: 10.1093/cdn/nzz040.P20-041-19PMCID: PMC6575000

Sugar-sweetened Beverage and High Fat Diet Consumption Harmfully Alters Gut Microbiota and Promotes Gut Inflammation (P20-041-19)

Woo-Jeong ShonMin Ho JungEun Young Choi, and Dong-Mi ShinAuthor informationCopyright and License informationDisclaimer

Abstract

Objectives

It is clear that epidemiologic trends document a dramatic increasing incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) paralleling global westernization. Despite strong tie among diets, gut microbiota (GM) and IBD, the exact mechanisms causing IBD remains incompletely understood. Here we hypothesized that changes in the gut immune system, in response to changes in gut microbiome induced “Westernized diet”, would be sufficient to trigger IBD.

Methods

We set out to test this hypothesized by analyzing the changes in gut microbiota composition induced by feeding mice with High sugar-solution or/and High fat and demonstrated their causal roles through high-throughput microbiome analyses. We further assessed changes in inflammatory cell recruitment using flow cytometry, and performed transcriptomic profiling analyses of intestine tissue to identify altered gut microbiota deliver changes in intestinal innate immune and adaptive T cell homeostasis. Importantly, to identify the role of the microbiota in directing host immune responses, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) experiments were conducted.

Results

The microbiome analyses results showed that PrevotellaBetaproteobacteria, and Cytophaga, which are a well-known the most representative species in IBD, was significantly enriched only in the HF-Sugar group, suggesting that addition of high-sugar to high-fat diet may reshape the GM by favoring colonization of pathobionts. Also, transcriptome and FACS profiling results showed, among others, high sugar synergistically changes intestinal transcriptomic signature related Inflammatory/Immune Response induced by several pro-inflammatory cytokines and induces expansion of inflammatory DCs and T cells driven by the high fat diet. By using FMT, we prove that host immune traits can be regulated by altering the GM.

Conclusions

Together, our large-scale profiling analyses may uncover an interaction between dietary alterations causing IBD and gut microbiota and provide helpful information regarding the microbiota plays a critical role in programming the immune phenotypes of the host.

Funding Sources

This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2018R1D1A1B07048023).


Articles from Current Developments in Nutrition are provided here courtesy of American Society for Nutrition

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Published by Robert K Stephen (CSW)

Robert K Stephen writes about food and drink, travel, and lifestyle issues. He is one of the few non-national writers to be certified as a wine specialist by the Society of Wine Educators, in Washington, DC. Robert was the first associate member of the Wine Writers’ Circle of Canada. He also holds a Mindfulness Certification from the University of Leiden and the University of Toronto. Be it Spanish cured meat, dried fruit, BBQ, or recycled bamboo place mats, Robert endeavours to escape the mundane, which is why he has established this publication. His motto is, "Have Story, Will Write."

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