Vitamin C Intervention for Critical COVID-19: A Pragmatic Review of the Current Level of Evidence
Patrick Holford 1,*, Anitra C. Carr 2, Masuma Zawari 2, Marcela P. Vizcaychipi 3,4
- Founder of Institute for Optimum Nutrition, Ambassador House, Richmond TW9 1SQ, UK
- Nutrition in Medicine Research Group, Department of Pathology & Biomedical Science, University of Otago, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand; email@example.com (A.C.); firstname.lastname@example.org (M.Z.)
- Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ, UK; email@example.com
- Intensive Care Medicine, Chelsea & Westminster Hospital, London SW10 9NH, UK
* Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: Severe respiratory infections are characterized by elevated inflammation and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which may lead to a decrease in antioxidants such as vitamin C and a higher requirement for the vitamin. Administration of intravenous vitamin C to patients with pneumonia and sepsis appears to decrease the severity of the disease and potentially improve survival rate. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection causes pneumonia, sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in severe cases, and is referred to as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Patients with COVID-19 infection also appear to have depleted vitamin C status and require additional supplementation of vitamin C during the acute phase of the disease. To date there have been 12 vitamin C and COVID-19 trials published, including five randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and seven retrospective cohort studies. The current level of evidence from the RCTs suggests that intravenous vitamin C intervention may improve oxygenation parameters, reduce inflammatory markers, decrease days in hospital and reduce mortality, particularly in the more severely ill patients. High doses of oral vitamin C supplementation may also improve the rate of recovery in less severe cases. No adverse events have been reported in published vitamin C clinical trials in COVID-19 patients. Upcoming findings from larger RCTs will provide additional evidence on vitamin supplementation in COVID-19 patients.
Posted: 1st November 2021
Read the full report here > https://www.mdpi.com/2075-1729/11/11/1166/pdf
Affordable Vitamin C for Covid | An Interview with Patrick Holford. Find out what the new 12 trial study has identified in THIS interview.